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南(nán)甯園博園采石場(chǎng)花園,廣西(xī) / 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

展現(xiàn)采石場(chǎng)生(shēng)态修複的可能(néng)性

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感謝 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所 予gooood分(fēn)享以下(xià)内容。 更多關(guān)于他們:ATELIER DYJG on gooood
Appreciations towards ATELIER DYJG for providing the following description:

2018年中國國際園林博覽會在南(nán)甯市(shì)舉辦。園博園選址于城市(shì)郊區的一(yī)片濱河(hé)的丘陵農(nóng)業區,但(dàn)場(chǎng)地東南(nán)區域分(fēn)布着一(yī)系列的采石場(chǎng)。組委會希望将這(zhè)些(xiē)采石場(chǎng)轉變為(wèi)園林博覽會中的有特色的園林,成為(wèi)展覽的一(yī)部分(fēn)。設計面積約33公頃。場(chǎng)地上(shàng)共7個(gè)采石場(chǎng),有的已停采了(le)幾年,有2個(gè)直到園博會申辦成功時(shí)才停止開采。由于開采采用的是爆破方式,因此開采面崖壁破碎,坑底高低(dī)不平。采石場(chǎng)留下(xià)的是破碎的丘陵,高聳的懸崖,荒蕪的地表,深不見底的水潭,成堆的渣土(tǔ)渣石,和生(shēng)鏽的采石設備。

設計面臨着一(yī)系列巨大的挑戰:采石場(chǎng)地質情況複雜,岩壁破碎,有崩塌落石的可能(néng),有不可預知的安全隐患;采石場(chǎng)生(shēng)态環境破壞嚴重,植被的修複面臨很大挑戰;采石坑的地貌極其複雜,無法依據現(xiàn)狀測繪圖紙進行設計;采石坑的水位一(yī)直在變化(huà),尤其是最後停采的2個(gè)采石場(chǎng),水位一(yī)直在持續上(shàng)升。設計沒有有效的水文數據。

為(wèi)了(le)精确地開展設計,設計師通過無人(rén)機航拍掃描,得到所有采石場(chǎng)的三維數字模型,設計得以從始至終在三維空間(jiān)上(shàng)進行。設計師還委托當地機構每半個(gè)月(yuè)(yuè)記錄一(yī)次每個(gè)坑中水位變化(huà)的情況,為(wèi)設計提供依據。同時(shí),設計師根據不同采石場(chǎng)植被恢複的目标,引入土(tǔ)壤,形成不同土(tǔ)壤厚度的種植區域,為(wèi)恢複生(shēng)境創造條。在設置設施和參觀路(lù)徑的時(shí)候将安全性放(fàng)在首位,在突出采石場(chǎng)景觀特色的同時(shí)避讓危險區域。7個(gè)采石場(chǎng)看起來(lái)很相似,但(dàn)實際上(shàng)每個(gè)的尺度、形态和特征都不相同。針對不同的場(chǎng)地特征,設計采用了(le)差異化(huà)的植被修複方法和人(rén)工介入方式。

1号采石場(chǎng)(落霞池)
Quarry No. 1

這(zhè)個(gè)面積約1hm²的采石場(chǎng),由于停采之後地下(xià)水滲出,形成了(le)一(yī)個(gè)由岩石包圍的甯靜池塘,被附近村(cūn)民(mín)用于養魚。環繞池塘的石壁雄渾厚重,非常符合中國傳統藝術對岩石的審美。設計試圖體(tǐ)現(xiàn)中國傳統的風(fēng)景美學。一(yī)個(gè)不規則形狀的木結構建築被嵌入池塘邊緣的岩石豁口中,其結構形式從當地的鄉土(tǔ)建築中獲得靈感。

Quarry No. 1 is a one-hectare quiet pond walled within a rough rock hedge, in which China’s traditional landscape aesthetics is attempted to be embodied. A wooden and irregularly-shaped pavilion is nestled within a rock gap at the edge of a pond, whose structural form is inspired by the local vernacular architecture.

▼景觀要素呈現(xiàn)出中國傳統的詩意的風(fēng)景美學,landscape elements well-depict the China’s traditional poetic landscape aesthetics © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

從陸地到水面,建築從狹長的廊子(zǐ)轉變為(wèi)水邊的大亭子(zǐ)。為(wèi)适應水位的變化(huà),亭子(zǐ)的地闆是浮動的。遊客在這(zhè)裏可以欣賞對面的岩壁和瀑布。瀑布為(wèi)這(zhè)個(gè)采石坑增加了(le)景觀的動态變化(huà),潺潺的水聲增添了(le)甯靜悠遠(yuǎn)的氣氛。水岸的一(yī)條小徑聯系了(le)4處不同标高的平台,為(wèi)人(rén)們提供了(le)從不同的角度觀賞岩石、瀑布和建築的場(chǎng)所。水邊岩石上(shàng)種滿了(le)紅(hóng)色的三角梅,懸垂下(xià)來(lái),倒影在池塘中。

It provides visitors with a panorama of green pond and encircling cliff, and babble waterfall on the diagonal opposite. To adapt to the unstable water levels, the pavilion floor is designed floated. A waterfront path links four platforms with varying elevations, offering people with all-round perspectives to enjoy the scenery.

▼亭子(zǐ)的結構形式從當地的鄉土(tǔ)建築中獲得靈感,the structural style of the pavilion is inspired by vernacular architecture © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

 

2号采石場(chǎng)(水花園)
Quarry No. 2

采石場(chǎng)面積僅為(wèi)0.4 hm²,四周岩壁環繞,坑底較平緩,低(dī)處常年有積水,是周圍村(cūn)莊鴨子(zǐ)嬉戲的樂(yuè)園。它被設計成為(wèi)一(yī)個(gè)濕生(shēng)植物花園。覆土(tǔ)形成的緩坡從淺水區一(yī)直延伸至岸上(shàng),種植了(le)40多種水生(shēng)和濕生(shēng)植物。在地勢較高處設計了(le)兩層台地,種植喬灌木,為(wèi)花園創造了(le)背景,也(yě)遮擋了(le)破碎的岩壁。山崖上(shàng)方有路(lù)徑與采石坑底部連接,最高的一(yī)段是封閉的木盒,既是安全的步行通道,也(yě)是一(yī)個(gè)空中觀景台,人(rén)們可在此欣賞岩壁,俯瞰花園。木盒下(xià)方有一(yī)個(gè)寬大的平台,平台引出的之字形鋼格栅棧道從濕生(shēng)植物種植區穿過。

Quarry No. 2 is surrounded by cliffs on all sides,with an area of only 0.4 ha. The quarry bottom is relatively flat and accumulates water perennially. The quarry is designed as an aquatic garden. The zigzag steel grating walkway winds through the planting zone and connects to a platform that further extends to a path above the cliff, accessed by several flights of steps. The section with the highest elevation features a closed wooden box, which is also an aerial viewing platform where people can appreciate a captivating view of the cliff and the entire garden expanse.

▼2号采石場(chǎng)被設計成濕生(shēng)植物花園,the quarry was transformed as an aquatic plant garden © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

▼一(yī)條路(lù)徑連接了(le)山崖上(shàng)方的水渠棧道與采石坑底部的平台,a path connects cliff-top to the platform at the pit-bottom © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

 

3号采石場(chǎng)(岩石園)
Quarry No. 3

這(zhè)個(gè)0.4hm²采石場(chǎng)基址呈碗狀,三面環繞岩壁,一(yī)側地面堆放(fàng)了(le)大量渣石和渣土(tǔ)。受到岩石縫隙中萌發的植物的啓發,我們将這(zhè)個(gè)采石場(chǎng)設計為(wèi)精緻的岩石園。設計将原有的渣石渣土(tǔ)整理(lǐ)後塑造出地形的骨架,然後在上(shàng)面覆蓋種植土(tǔ)。微妙的地形變化(huà)不僅創造出幹燥和濕潤等不同的生(shēng)境,為(wèi)不同植物生(shēng)長提供條件,也(yě)把場(chǎng)地雨水收集到最低(dī)的凹陷區。

Quarry No. 3 is bordered by the cliff on three sides and was designed as a delicate rock garden. The abandoned soil and gravel on site were utilized as the base of the garden’s subtle landform, with planting soil wrapping its surface. A moderately-sized terrace garden is designed near the main road, creating a unique desert plant landscape.

▼采石場(chǎng)基址呈碗狀,三面環繞岩壁 ,Quarry No. 3 is bordered by the cliff on three sides and was designed as a delicate rock garden © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

緊鄰主園路(lù)設計了(le)幾層尺度親切、變化(huà)豐富的台地來(lái)化(huà)解高差。台地上(shàng)種植了(le)仙人(rén)掌和多肉多漿等沙生(shēng)植物,營造出極富特色的沙漠植物景觀。中間(jiān)緩坡區展現(xiàn)荒原植物景觀。底部凹陷區被設計為(wèi)濕生(shēng)岩石園,有溪流層層跌落至最低(dī)處的池塘。兩個(gè)标高不同的平台位于凹陷區的邊緣,人(rén)們可以憑欄觀賞溪流跌水。

The gentle-sloping section in the center consists of a dry garden, while the southern concave section showcases hygrophilous rock plants with water cascading into the lowest pond. Two platforms with different elevations are constructed at the edge of the concave area, where people can enjoy a charming view of the garden.

▼采石場(chǎng)設計為(wèi)精緻的岩石園, delicate rock garden © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

▼變化(huà)豐富的台地與沙漠植物景觀, moderately-sized terrace garden and desert plant landscape © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

 

4号采石場(chǎng)(峻崖潭)
Quarry No. 4

采石場(chǎng)停采之後滲透出來(lái)的地下(xià)水彙成一(yī)個(gè)面積約1hm²的碧綠(lǜ)澄澈的大水潭。我們在南(nán)北兩側主要觀賞點設置了(le)平台。北側的觀景台是一(yī)個(gè)位于采石場(chǎng)邊緣的耐候鋼長廊,内部朝向采石場(chǎng)打開了(le)一(yī)長條帶形窗,在此可以望見對面高出水面40多米的高聳險峻的懸崖。長廊南(nán)端懸挑在岩壁上(shàng),人(rén)們站(zhàn)在玻璃欄杆内側可以俯瞰腳下(xià)的一(yī)池碧水和對面的濱水平台,驚險刺激。

Quarry No. 4 is a large pond embraced by cliffs, with green and clear water. Viewing platforms sit on both northern and southern sides of the quarry. The northern platform is a Corten steel corridor located at the quarry’s edge, unraveling a long strip window towards the quarry, where visitors can feast their eyes on the steep cliff towering over 40 meters above the water surface. At the southern end of the corridor, people can enjoy an overlooking view of the charming pond situated beneath and the waterfront platform on the opposite side, offering a thrilling and exciting experience.

▼4号采石場(chǎng)俯瞰 ,aerial view of the quarry no.4 © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

采石坑南(nán)側,一(yī)個(gè)楔形平台從山石的一(yī)個(gè)豁口探出,懸挑于碧水之上(shàng),一(yī)條曲線的棧橋從平台引出,連接低(dī)處的濱水平台。坑體(tǐ)周圍和和坑内緩坡處通過覆土(tǔ),種植了(le)南(nán)洋杉和一(yī)些(xiē)鄉土(tǔ)灌木及草本,使采石場(chǎng)有了(le)生(shēng)機并襯托出崖壁的險峻。

On the southern side of the quarry, a wedge-shaped platform stretches out from a gap among the rocks. It hangs above the waters and connects to the lower waterfront platform through a curved bridge. Through an earthing-up process, vegetation was restored around the quarry as well as the gentle slope inside, which revives the quarry garden meanwhile highlights the steepness of cliffs.

▼采石坑北側的高處的長廊和南(nán)側低(dī)處的棧橋和平台,The higher corridor on the north side of the quarry and the lower boardwalk with platform on the south © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

▼懸于峭壁之上(shàng)的耐候鋼長廊,the Corten steel corridor on the edge of the quarry © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

 

5号采石場(chǎng)(飛瀑湖)
Quarry No. 5

這(zhè)個(gè)面積最大的采石場(chǎng)約3.2hm²,開采深度也(yě)最深,達28m,底部呈現(xiàn)幾層岩台,崖壁破碎。随着地下(xià)水逐漸蓄積,水位不斷上(shàng)升。根據水位觀測和分(fēn)析,我們判斷最終整個(gè)采石坑将成為(wèi)一(yī)片湖面。設計師通過覆土(tǔ)将采石坑底部兩片開采深度相對較淺的區域擡高到水面之上(shàng),并種植耐濕高大喬木如(rú)池杉和水松,形成水上(shàng)叢林,為(wèi)荒涼的坑體(tǐ)内部帶來(lái)綠(lǜ)色和生(shēng)機。然後用不同高度的棧橋引導人(rén)們進入采石坑内部,穿越水面和樹林,通往岬角高處的觀景台,在下(xià)降和攀登的探索中體(tǐ)驗空間(jiān)和景觀的變化(huà)。為(wèi)了(le)增加景觀的豐富性,棧橋對面的崖壁上(shàng)設計了(le)飛流而下(xià)的瀑布,人(rén)們可以在橋上(shàng)觀賞到精彩的瀑布景觀。

Quarry No. 5 is the largest among the seven quarries, enclosed by dilapidated cliff with terraced rocks sitting at the bottom. The quarry has transformed into a lake, caused by the continuously-rising water level. Two areas with relatively shallow mining depths were earthed up above the water surface, and planted with trees such as pond cypress and Chinese cypress, creating an aquatic woods landscape. Bridges and walkways of varying heights crisscross above the water and through the woods, creating a connection with the hilltop view platform. A waterfall is designed on the opposite of the bridge, forming a scenery spot accordingly.

▼不同高度的棧橋引導人(rén)們進入采石坑内部 ,bridges and walkways of varying heights crisscross above the water © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

▼棧道通往山坡高處的觀景台,the Corten steel path leading to the viewing platform at the hilltop © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

 

6号采石場(chǎng)(台地園)
Quarry No. 6

6号采石場(chǎng)一(yī)側是采石場(chǎng)崖壁,一(yī)側是鄉村(cūn)水塘,面積為(wèi)0.7hm²。場(chǎng)地上(shàng)有制砂生(shēng)産線的全套設備,展現(xiàn)着場(chǎng)地采石工業的曆史。它被塑造成具有後工業氣氛的浪漫絢麗(lì)的花園。幾層台地沿南(nán)側崖壁蜿蜒展開,它們的覆土(tǔ)厚度滿足不同植物生(shēng)長的需要。機械設備大部分(fēn)被置于綠(lǜ)地之中,生(shēng)機勃勃的植物與鏽迹斑斑的機械形成有趣的對比。道路(lù)在不同高度的台地中和原有高架傳送帶下(xià)方曲折穿過,路(lù)邊設置了(le)舒适的木質靠背椅供人(rén)休息。

Quarry No. 6 was transformed into a romantic and gorgeous garden with post-industrial atmosphere, utilizing sand production machines left onsite. Along the southern cliff are several terraces with various thicknesses of earthing soil, meeting the needs of various plants, from herbs to trees. Most of the leftover equipment was set in the verdant greens that contrast with the rusty machinery. The paths twist among the terraces of different heights and under the overhead conveyor belt. Wooden benches along the paths and platforms provide comfortable venues for rest and relaxation.

▼具有後工業氣氛的浪漫絢麗(lì)的台地花園,romantic and gorgeous terrace garden with post-industrial atmosphere © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

▼不同覆土(tǔ)厚度的台地滿足不同植物生(shēng)長的需要,various thicknesses of earthing soil meet the needs of plants © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

 

7号采石場(chǎng)(雙秀園)
Quarry No. 7

這(zhè)是位于一(yī)座小山兩翼的兩個(gè)1000多平方米的小采石坑,一(yī)個(gè)較深,終年有水;另一(yī)個(gè)較淺,有季節性積水。因為(wèi)廢棄了(le)若幹年,兩個(gè)坑的石縫裏長出了(le)各種鄉土(tǔ)先鋒植物,景觀樸野自然。設計沒有采用過多的人(rén)工幹預,隻在兩個(gè)坑體(tǐ)中間(jiān)未被開采的山坡上(shàng)設置了(le)一(yī)圈環形棧道,讓遊人(rén)在這(zhè)裏俯視(shì)兩側的采石坑,讓人(rén)們了(le)解在礦坑修複中自然的力量和作(zuò)用。在西(xī)側坑體(tǐ)邊緣設了(le)一(yī)個(gè)臨水小平台,與山上(shàng)的環形棧道相呼應。棧道和平台都采用鋼格栅的材料,透光透水,不會影響場(chǎng)地自然植被的恢複。

Quarry No. 7 Comprises of two small quarry pits located on two sides of a hill. Abandoned for years, a variety of native pioneer plants have grown out of cracks in the rocks, displaying a natural landscape. With only a few interventions, a ring-shaped walkway skirting the hillside between two pits and a small platform on the edge of the west pit are constructed. They affords visitors a wild view , which demonstrates natural forces and functions in the restoration of quarries. Both walkway and platform adopt steel grating that transmit light and water, preserving the natural vegetation on site.

▼7号采石場(chǎng)概覽 – 山頂的環形棧道和水邊的平台,overall of the Quarry No. 7:The ring-shaped walkway atop the hill and waterside platform © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

通過契合場(chǎng)地地貌和景觀特征的設計,7個(gè)岩石破碎、荒涼的采石場(chǎng)轉變成為(wèi)了(le)園林博覽會上(shàng)獨特的系列花園,展現(xiàn)了(le)采石場(chǎng)生(shēng)态修複的可能(néng)性和景觀藝術的不同維度。它們所展現(xiàn)出來(lái)的思想和方法,不僅僅在采石場(chǎng)修複項目中、并且在更廣泛的景觀實踐中具有示範的價值。

With the design well-fitted with its original landform and landscape features, seven dilapidated and desolate quarries have undergone a fascinating transformation into a series of unique gardens. They demonstrate the promising possibilities and showcase to the public the diversified methods of quarry eco-restoration as well as the multiple dimensions of landscape art.

▼荒涼的采石場(chǎng)轉變成獨特的系列花園 ,desolate quarries transform into a series of unique gardens © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

場(chǎng)地上(shàng)原有一(yī)道水渠,是場(chǎng)地農(nóng)業曆史的見證。我們在設計中保留了(le)水渠,将它作(zuò)為(wèi)該區域幾個(gè)水面的補水水源,延續它原有的功能(néng),并水渠上(shàng)方架設高架步行橋,與相臨的采石場(chǎng)花園的遊覽路(lù)徑連接起來(lái),形成該區域獨特的立體(tǐ)遊覽體(tǐ)系。為(wèi)了(le)給遊客提供一(yī)些(xiē)基本服務(wù),同時(shí)也(yě)展示園區生(shēng)态修複的理(lǐ)念和方法,我們在采石場(chǎng)區域設計了(le)一(yī)個(gè)600m²的信息亭。木結構的建築呼應了(le)當地鄉土(tǔ)建築的形式。

An existing aqueduct runs across the site, transporting water from nearby spring to surrounding villages and farms. As a witness of site’s agricultural history, it is well-preserved for irrigation water supply of the area, retaining its original function. Above the aqueduct is a pedestrian bridge that connects to the paths toward the adjacent quarry gardens, creating a unique three-dimensional tour system in this area. A 600m2 pavilion provides various tourist services such as sales, rest, shuttle bus ticketing, etc., and also showcases the history and eco-restoration processes and methods of the quarry gardens.

▼木結構的信息亭,pavilion with wooden structure © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

▼信息亭細部,details of the pavilion © 北京多義景觀規劃設計事(shì)務(wù)所

項目名稱:南(nán)甯園博園采石場(chǎng)花園